All items are hand made in our shop starting with metal wire and sheet and chunks and slabs of turquoise. We buy from various mines as well as old collections of turquoise from estates and often we have no idea of what mine or country they came from. Those are labelled as estate turquoise although we will note any guesses as to source if we have them. Most turquoise is stabilized to make it hard enough to polish and we will note if something is natural. Only 10 or 20 percent of turquoise is unstabilized and price usually reflects that.